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The flood hound on the front line of the war against water waste | News Review | The Sunday Times
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Log in Subscribe. Read the full article. Start your free trial. However, many workers, including Brunel himself, soon fell ill from the poor conditions caused by filthy sewage-laden water seeping through from the river above. This sewage gave off methane gas which was ignited by the miner's oil lamps.
To earn some income from the tunnel, the company directors allowed sightseers to view the shield in operation. They charged a shilling for the adventure and an estimated — visitors took advantage of the opportunity every day. The excavation was also hazardous. Following the repairs and the drainage of the tunnel, he held a banquet inside it. The tunnel flooded again the following year, on 12 January , when six men died. Isambard was extremely lucky to survive this; the six men had made their way to the main stairwell, as the emergency exit was known to be locked.
Front Line: Dr Mike Jones, Thames Water
Isambard instead made for the locked exit. A contractor named Beamish heard him there and broke the door down, and an unconscious Isambard was pulled out and revived. Financial problems followed, leading in August to the tunnel being walled off just behind the shield and then abandoned for seven years. Starting in August the old rusted shield was dismantled and removed. By March the new shield, improved and heavier, was assembled in place and boring resumed. Impeded by further floods, 23 August and 3 November , 20 March , 3 April  fires and leaks of methane and hydrogen sulphide gas, the remainder of the tunnelling was completed in November , after another five and a half years.
The extensive delays and repeated flooding made the tunnel the butt of metropolitan humour:.
Front Line: Dr Mike Jones, Thames Water
Good Monsieur Brunel Let misanthropy tell That your work, half complete, is begun ill; Heed them not, bore away Through gravel and clay, Nor doubt the success of your Tunnel. That very mishap, When the Thames forced a gap, And made it fit haunt for an otter, Has proved that your scheme Is no catchpenny dream;— They can't say "'twill never hold water. The Thames Tunnel was fitted out with lighting, roadways and spiral staircases during — An engine house on the Rotherhithe side, which now houses the Brunel Museum , was also constructed to house machinery for draining the tunnel.
The tunnel was finally opened to the public on 25 March Although it was a triumph of civil engineering, the Thames Tunnel was not a financial success. It became a major tourist attraction, attracting about two million people a year, each paying a penny to pass through,  and became the subject of popular songs.
The American traveller William Allen Drew commented that "No one goes to London without visiting the Tunnel" and described it as the "eighth wonder of the world". Amongst the blocks of buildings [in Wapping] that separate the street from the river, we notice an octagonal edifice of marble. We enter by one of several great doors, and find ourselves in a rotunda of fifty feet diameter, and the floor laid in mosaic work of blue and white marble. A sort of watch-house stands on the side of the rotunda next the river, in which is a fat publican, or tax gatherer.
Before him is a brass turnstile, through which you are permitted to pass, on paying him a penny, and, entering a door, you begin to descend the shaft, by a flight of very long marble steps that descend to a wide platform, from which the next series of steps descends in an opposite direction. The walls of the shaft are circular, finished in stucco, and hung with paintings and other curious objects. You halt a few moments on the first platform and listen to the notes of a huge organ that occupies a part of it, discoursing excellent music.
You resume your downward journey till you reach the next story, or marble platform, where you find other objects of curiosity to engage your attention whilst you stop to rest. Arrived at the bottom, you find yourself in a rotunda corresponding to that you entered from the street, a round room, with marble floor, fifty feet in diameter. There are alcoves near the walls in which are all sorts of contrivances to get your money, from Egyptian necromancers and fortune-tellers to dancing monkeys. The room is lighted with gas, and is brilliant. Now look into the Thames Tunnel before you.
It consists of two beautiful Arches, extending to the opposite side of the river. These Arches contain each a roadsted, fourteen feet wide and twenty-two feet high, and pathways for pedestrians, three feet wide. The Tunnel appears to be well ventilated, as the air seemed neither damp nor close. The partition between these Arches, running the whole length of the Tunnel, is cut into transverse arches, leading through from one roadsted to the other.
There may be fifty of them in all, and these are finished into fancy and toy shops in the richest manner — with polished marble counters, tapestry linings gilded shelves, and mirrors that make everything appear double.
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Ladies, in fashionable dresses and with smiling faces, wait within and allow no gentleman to pass without giving him an opportunity to purchase some pretty thing to carry home as a remembrancer of the Thames Tunnel. It is impossible to pass through without purchasing some curiosity. Most of the articles are labelled — "Bought in the Thames Tunnel" — "a present from the Thames Tunnel".
Drew was perhaps charitable in his view of the tunnel, which came to be regarded as the haunt of prostitutes and "tunnel thieves" who lurked under its arches and mugged passers-by. It consisted of an arched corridor of apparently interminable length, gloomily lighted with jets of gas at regular intervals There are people who spend their lives there, seldom or never, I presume, seeing any daylight, except perhaps a little in the morning.
All along the extent of this corridor, in little alcoves, there are stalls of shops, kept principally by women, who, as you approach, are seen through the dusk offering for sale So far as any present use is concerned, the tunnel is an entire failure.
The tunnel was purchased in September by the East London Railway Company, a consortium of six mainline railways which sought to use the tunnel to provide a rail link for goods and passengers between Wapping and later Liverpool Street and the South London Line. The tunnel's generous headroom, resulting from the architects' original intention of accommodating horse-drawn carriages, provided a sufficient loading gauge for trains as well.
The line's engineer was Sir John Hawkshaw who was also noted, with W. Barlow, for the major re-design and completion of Isambard Brunel's long abandoned Clifton Suspension Bridge at Bristol, which was completed in The first train ran through the tunnel on 7 December It continued to be used for goods services as late as During the Underground days, the Thames Tunnel was the oldest piece of the Underground's infrastructure. As construction would require the temporary closure of the East London Line, it was decided to take this opportunity to perform long-term maintenance on the tunnel and so in the East London Line was closed to allow construction and maintenance to take place.
The proposed repair method for the tunnel was to seal it against leaks by " shotcreting " it with concrete, obliterating its original appearance, causing a controversy that led to a bitter conflict between London Underground who wished to complete the work as quickly and cheaply as possible and architectural interests wishing to preserve the tunnel's appearance. The tunnel closed again from 23 December to permit tracklaying and resignalling for the East London Line extension. The extension work resulted in the tunnel becoming part of the new London Overground.
After its reopening on 27 April , it was used by mainline trains again. The construction of the Thames Tunnel showed that it was indeed possible to build underwater tunnels, despite the previous scepticism of many engineers. Brunel's tunnelling shield was later refined, with James Henry Greathead playing a particularly important role in developing the technology.
The plaque was removed for safe keeping for the duration of the works, but is now reinstated on the tunnel wall and can be seen from the passenger staircase into the station platforms. It was built to house the drainage pumps for the tunnel and has now been restored. Until the East London Line was closed in for major refurbishment and upgrade, the museum organised tours through the tunnel by train.
It is still possible to take a walking tour through the tunnel to Wapping from Rotherhithe and back, but these are infrequent and on an ad-hoc basis as they can only take place when that section of the line is closed for maintenance.