Six Songs, op. 35, no. 5: When Two Young Hearts Do Sever (Wenn sich zwei Herzen scheiden)

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All of these relationships combine to indicate that Wagner employed a kind of parody technique in Tristan. Many previous composers have ended their variation sets with a return to the opening theme; the thirty-third and final variation, a minuet, can be thought of as Beethoven's transformation of this theme to a higher sphere, acting as a crowning epilogue or coda.

This leaves thirty-two variations, corresponding to the thirty-two measures of the theme. The waltz theme is symmetrically organized into eight four-measure groups. Likewise, the thirty-two variations can be described as a set of eight groups of four successive variations, related by sequences of tempi, meter, texture, and character.

The solo baritone's recitative intervention in the fourth movement of Beethoven's Ninth Symphony has often been interpreted as a commentary on the instrumental discourse of the symphony, but a newer interpretation of the recitative hears the baritone's words as a call to song in both a literal and idealized sense. In addition to investigating the song-like aspects of the Finale, the effects of silences are also explored as folk elements and compared with Beethoven's settings of Johann Gottfried Herder's poetry.

In a survey of Chabrier's works for piano, features of his style that foreshadow the styles of later French composers are noted.

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The use of unresolved seventh and ninth chords is a technique later incorporated by Debussy and Ravel. In a more general sense, a number of pieces by Chabrier seem to be linked to pieces by Ravel. These pieces are listed in a table in the concluding section of the dissertation. Mendelssohn was the first to incorporate ideas from Beethoven's late works into his own compositions. Yet these pieces of Mendelssohn involve a high degree of novelty. Mendelssohn's borrowing from Beethoven may also be construed as a unique reinterpretation of their less accessible models for the Biedermeier age.

Quotation in music is often considered without exploring the context of the quoted material. Many of Beethoven's overtures follow the model of the French overture, which requires one or more quotations from the stage music. Material which is recognizably from another piece but is altered in some way is placed in the category of "adaptation," which is defined as the removal of a piece of music from its original context and conforming it to a new environment and function.

This may require a new context transcription ; transposition and new instrumentation such as placing material from a piano sonata into a chamber music piece ; or new words, this last condition being termed "parody. A more exhaustive investigation is necessary to determine the true extent of Beethoven's creative methods in terms of quotation, adaptation, and parody. That Stephen Foster's style was indebted to folksong is unquestioned.

However, the source of folksong is not the Negro spiritual as has been assumed, but the folk tunes of England. This is proved by an analysis of structural harmonies. Thus, Foster's folksongs demonstrate a strong connection to this popular bass pattern rather than to American folk sources. Gioachino Rossini gained fame and developed his compositional style during his Neapolitan years , yet many of these works were once thought to be lost. The discovery of the manuscripts of several non-operatic Neapolitan works the cantata Le Nozze di Teti e di Peleo, four other cantatas, and the Messa di Gloria reveals much about Rossini's compositional style.

All of these works, especially Le Nozze di Teti e di Peleo, contain a significant amount of self-borrowed material, most likely because they were made hastily for specific occasions. The self-borrowing comes in several types: setting a melody to a new voice part, borrowing from two separate sources, keeping the same medium such as deriving a chorus from another chorus , changing the medium such as deriving a trio from a chorus , modeling on an earlier composition, and paraphrasing an earlier melody into a new melody.

There is rarely a single best version for Rossini's operas, since in the first half of the nineteenth century, Italian opera was treated as a collection of individual units which could be rearranged, substituted, or omitted depending on varying local conditions. This dissertation examines all the authentic versions of fourteen operas by Rossini in printed or manuscript sources in order to establish the correct texts for the works. An authentic version is defined as one with which Rossini can be shown to have been directly connected in the capacity of composer, director, or arranger, or one that he personally approved for inclusion in his operas but was composed by somebody else.

Although not dealing primarily with borrowing, this dissertation examines Rossini's reuses of his own music in great detail, since he frequently made use of this practice in his operas or in later versions or revivals of the same work. Rossini's self-borrowings are viewed as an important characteristic of his compositional style and as a result of his time and milieu. The archetype of Rossini's overture is defined in order to test attributions of dubious pedigree from his first period of compositional practice Rossini's self-borrowings in his overtures are examined indirectly but in great detail since they are a very prominent characteristic of his compositional style and can help to solve matters of authorship.

An alternate overture to La scala di seta is shown not to be by Rossini on the basis of its borrowing technique. This overture quotes in full two melodies that will appear in later operas by Rossini and Gossett shows that Rossini never uses melodies from an earlier overture in the body of a future opera unless he intends to preface the latter with the same overture. A table with comments about Rossini's self-borrowings is shown on page Grant argues that Bruckner and Mahler are dissimilar in many respects, which he enumerates, and suggests that the linking of Mahler with Richard Strauss might be more meaningful.

Their influence was reciprocal. Part of the last song in Lieder eines fahrenden Gesellen may be seen as the ancestor of the final duet in Der Rosenkavalier, and the off-stage fanfares in the outer movements of Mahler's First Symphony may have suggested the off-stage fanfares in Ein Heldenleben. Strauss also influenced Mahler, with apparent connections between Ein Heldenleben and the last movement of Mahler's Eighth Symphony; the neuroticism of Salome and parts of Das Lied von der Erde and the Ninth Symphony; and "wandering" solo violin passages in Strauss's Don Juan and Ein Heldenleben and similar solo violin passages in Mahler's Eighth Symphony.

Background information on the Dies Irae sequence notes no records of the melody's origins and attributes the text to Thomas of Celano. Composers have used the chant in two ways: 1 as an integral part of their settings of the Requiem Mass in its proper context; 2 in secular works, often in a debased form to help create the appropriate diabolical or supernatural atmosphere. Berlioz's Symphonie Fantastique was the first in a Romantic trend of using this theme associated with death and the last judgment in its most terrible aspects.

The character of the melody's significance has changed significantly from its original connotation. Composers of the Romantic era used the melody for its associations with terror and dread, while ignoring the message of hope that is also explicit in the words. Some manifestations of the Dies Irae melody served as models for other composers to follow. In the twentieth century, the tradition was kept alive by Sergei Rachmaninaov, who used the Dies Irae to represent evil spirits in the Rhapsody on a Theme by Paganini.

Grosse Meister der Musik, ed. Leipzig: C. Although a general biography, Haas covers specific borrowing on pages of his study, where he deals with Bruckner's symphonic music. Haas, as the first editor of Bruckner's collected works, has drawn together a sketch study with biographical material to give an insightful look into developments of particular borrowings that Bruckner used.


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A letter written in response to a previous correspondence by Frank Hill on Shostakovich's borrowings Oct. Hall wants to clarify that over composers have used the tune of the British National Anthem in their compositions, in over works of all types.

No specific works are mentioned, but the list of composers includes J. Eva Badura-Skoda and Peter Branscombe, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, Both concern the union of loved ones despite separation, and this general similarity of spirit and sentiment is reinforced in specific musical terms. The coda of Schubert's song appears to have been modeled on that of Beethoven's cycle, and the central strophes are an almost literal quotation of the funeral march from the Erioca Symphony.

This latter allusion is particularly appropriate, as the song was written for, and first performed at, a concert held on the first anniversary of Beethoven's death; this song can therefore be seen as Schubert's musical 'memorial' to his great predecessor. Yesterdays: Popular Song in America. Examines the controversy between Berlioz and Liszt as to who first orchestrated the Rakoczy march. Through an historical examination of how Berlioz came to orchestrate the tune and a comparison of the two pieces, Haraszti determines that Berlioz's accounts in his Memoirs concerning the piece's history are largely correct, and that Berlioz's version is not based on that of Liszt.


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Haraszti also describes the origins of the tune and its significance to Hungarian society. Clara Schumann also composed works in several of the genres that Chopin frequently composed in, such as the mazurka and polonaise. Her Piano Concerto in A minor, Op. Works: Chopin: Nocturne in E-flat major, Op.

List of compositions by Felix Mendelssohn

He also retains the regularity of four-bar phrasing from the model and at the same time interrupts it by a three-beat pause, adding rhythmic uncertainty. Ives's method of quotation is seen as a reworking of borrowed material by altering melodic segments. Many musical examples illustrating Ives's techniques are cited.

9 Lieder: No. 5. Wenn sich zwei Herzen scheiden

The article concludes with a diagram of the architectonic structure of. Works: Ives: Sonata No. The Charles Ives Tunebook. Bibliographies in American Music, no.

List of compositions by Felix Mendelssohn

Michigan: Harmonie Park Press, Debussy's early works involve explicit reliance on existing models while in his later works the models become more tacit and personalized. This process can be observed in his formulaic openings to works. Numerous examples are cited for each. Such formulas are primarily a mid-to-late nineteenth-century phenomenon. Hepokoski invokes Dahlhaus's concept of originality and the influence of the Symbolists. Martin Luther and Its Blessed Results, ed. Dau, Louis: Concordia, Perhaps the quintessential Lutheran hymn, Ein feste Burg embodies Martin Luther's faith and had lasting musical effects, not only on his own generation but also on generations of composers to come.

The verse structure of Psalm 46 appealed to Luther most strongly in the last line, which stands on its own in the rhyme scheme and makes the text more powerful, as though one could reduce the psalm to a simple statement of faith. Further, Luther's musical setting, with three repeated notes to begin the tune, made a lasting impression on future composers.

Some composers, such as J. Bach and Mendelssohn, use the tune in order to let it emerge from a complex texture, reinforcing its victorious and ultimately religious connotations. Others, including Meyerbeer, use the tune for programmatic rather than religious purposes, as the tune accompanies "undressing girls. While this correspondence has nothing to do with Shostakovich's borrowings, it contains several interesting comments on musical borrowings in general. Hill states that "Notte e giorno faticar" from Mozart's Don Giovanni is quoted in Offenbach's Tales of Hoffman because Hoffman is waiting for his latest love, Stella, who is appearing in a performance of Don Giovanni in the theater next door.

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Hill parenthetically adds that "it is very difficult to think of a work of any length without a quote," and states that at least 24 works borrow from God Save the King. Max Hinrichsen, London: Hinrichsen Edition, The quotation appears in the second half of Verse 6, with the text "in the evening it is cut down, and withereth. Brooklyn: Institute for Studies in American Music, Beethoven's influence on Schubert was a psychological as much as musical one, against which the composer struggled. The Great C Major Symphony is an illustration of how much of this influence had been absorbed by the end of his life.